Spirituality-relation to science

Since the scientific revolution of the 18th-century Enlightenment, the relationship of science to religion and to spirituality has developed in complex ways. Historian John Hedley Brooke describes wide variations: The natural sciences have been invested with religious meaning, with antireligious implications and, in many contexts, with no religious significance at all.”

Brooke has proposed that the currently held popular notion of antagonisms between science and religion has historically originated with “thinkers with a social or political axe to grind” rather than with the natural philosophers themselves. Though physical and biological scientists today see no need for supernatural explanations to describe reality, some scientists continue to regard science and spirituality as complementary, not contradictory, and are willing to debate, rather than simply classifying spirituality and science as Non-Overlapping Magisteria.

A few religious leaders have shown openness to modern science and its methods. The 14th Dalai Lama, for example, has proposed that if a scientific analysis conclusively showed certain claims in Buddhism to be false, then the claims must be abandoned and the findings of science accepted.